Recently, the world’s first fully high-temperature superconducting Tokamak device, developed and constructed by Energy Singularity, known as “HH70,” has successfully achieved first plasma. HH70 has conducted discharge experiments based on two types of pre-ionization methods: localized helical magnetic flux injection (electron gun) and ion cyclotron heating (ICRF), and has successfully obtained the first plasma.

The toroidal magnetic field (B0) of HH70 is 0.6 Tesla, with a plasma major radius of 0.75 meters. Its magnet system consists of 26 high-temperature superconducting magnets. Designed, developed, and constructed by Energy Singularity, HH70 has independent intellectual property rights, with a localization rate exceeding 96%. The completion and operation of HH70 have taken the lead in the world in completing the engineering feasibility verification of high-temperature superconducting Tokamak, marking that China has gained a first-mover advantage in the key field of high-temperature superconducting magnetic confinement fusion. At the same time, the research and construction of HH70 have also achieved a number of innovative results:

  • The world’s first high-temperature superconducting magnetic confinement fusion device.
  • The world’s first high-temperature superconducting Tokamak.
  • The world’s first superconducting Tokamak built by a commercial company.
  • One of the four superconducting Tokamaks in operation worldwide.

The successful discharge of HH70 signifies that Energy Singularity has become the first and currently the only team in the world to build and operate a fully high-temperature superconducting Tokamak, as well as the first and currently the only commercial company to build and operate a fully superconducting Tokamak. Starting from the completion and operation of HH70, and taking HH70 as a key experimental platform, we will invest in the development of the next generation of high-field high-temperature superconducting Tokamak devices—HH170, which aims to achieve a deuterium-tritium equivalent energy gain (Q) greater than 10.

Controlled nuclear fusion is expected to provide humanity with an almost infinite, clean, and cheap source of energy, and is considered the ultimate energy solution. As the only magnetic confinement fusion technology route that has completed scientific feasibility verification, the Tokamak has always been the focus of global controlled nuclear fusion research and development. High-temperature superconducting Tokamak combines robust physics with engineering innovation, which is expected to greatly improve the cost-effectiveness of the device and accelerate the commercialization of fusion energy, and has become the direction of fusion energy research and development that attracts the most market-oriented funding worldwide. As a domestic institution that took the lead in focusing on the research and development of high-temperature superconducting Tokamak, since its establishment in 2021, Energy Singularity has taken “accelerating the realization of human energy freedom” as its mission, adhering to the values of “extreme efficiency and seeking truth from facts”, and has established an integrated high-temperature superconducting magnet design, processing, and testing platform, and built the capabilities for research and development, design, construction, and operation of high-temperature superconducting Tokamak devices.